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Epidémiologie en médecine
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Access-restricted-item true Addeddate There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to write a review. Books for People with Print Disabilities. Internet Archive Books. Scanned in China.Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and causation of disease in human populations.
It has always been part of the curriculum for medical students, but not ranked highly by them in terms of interest or importance. However, recent GMC recommendations for change in the UK medical curricula include an increase in emphasis in the study of epidemiology and public health medicine, so the subject is likely to take higher priority in the future.
This new edition of one of the best known student textbooks of epidemiology has been updated and includes new material while still offering concise coverage of the core knowledge required by the student.
New edition of one of the best known student textbooks of epidemiology Offers concise coverage of the core knowledge required by the student. Read more Read less. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Register a free business account. Tell the Publisher!
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Epidemiology in medicine
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The E-mail Address es field is required. Please enter recipient e-mail address es. The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format. Please re-enter recipient e-mail address es.Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine.
It is considered a cornerstone methodology of public health research, and is highly regarded in evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease and determining optimal treatment approaches to clinical practice. In the study of communicable and non-communicable diseases, the work of epidemiologists ranges from outbreak investigation to study design, data collection and analysis including the development of statistical models to test hypotheses and the documentation of results for submission to peer-reviewed journals.
Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic.
Epidemiologists rely on a number of other scientific disciplines, such as biology to better understand disease processesGeographic Information Science to store data and map disease patterns and social science disciplines to better understand proximate and distal risk factors. But the term is widely used in studies of zoological populations veterinary epidemiologyalthough the term ' epizoology ' is available, and it has also been applied to studies of plant populations botanical epidemiology.
The Greek physician Hippocrates is sometimes said to be the father of epidemiology. He is the first person known to have examined the relationships between the occurrence of disease and environmental influences. He coined the terms endemic for diseases usually found in some places but not in others and epidemic for disease that are seen at some times but not others. One of the earliest theories on the origin of disease was that it was primarily the fault of human luxury. This was expressed by philosophers such as Plato [ 3 ] and Rousseau[ 4 ] and social critics like Jonathan Swift.
In the medieval Islamic worldphysicians discovered the contagious nature of infectious disease. In particular, the Persian physician Avicennaconsidered a "father of modern medicine," [ 6 ] in The Canon of Medicine sdiscovered the contagious nature of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseaseand the distribution of disease through water and soil. When the Black Death bubonic plague reached Al Andalus in the 14th century, Ibn Khatima hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by "minute bodies" which enter the human body and cause disease.
Another 14th century Andalusian-Arabian physician, Ibn al-Khatib —wrote a treatise called On the Plaguein which he stated how infectious disease can be transmitted through bodily contact and "through garments, vessels and earrings. In the middle of the 16th century, a famous Italian doctor from Verona named Girolamo Fracastoro was the first to propose a theory that these very small, unseeable, particles that cause disease were alive.
They were considered to be able to spread by air, multiply by themselves and to be destroyable by fire. In this way he refuted Galen 's miasma theory poison gas in sick people. In he wrote a book De contagione et contagiosis morbisin which he was the first to promote personal and environmental hygiene to prevent disease.
The development of a sufficiently powerful microscope by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in provided visual evidence of living particles consistent with a germ theory of disease. John Graunta professional haberdasher and serious amateur scientist, published Natural and Political Observations In it, he used analysis of the mortality rolls in London before the Great Plague to present one of the first life tables and report time trends for many diseases, new and old.
He provided statistical evidence for many theories on disease, and also refuted many widespread ideas on them. John Snow is famous for his investigations into the causes of the 19th Century Cholera epidemics. He began with noticing the significantly higher death rates in two areas supplied by Southwark Company.
His identification of the Broad Street pump as the cause of the Soho epidemic is considered the classic example of epidemiology. He used chlorine in an attempt to clean the water and had the handle removed, thus ending the outbreak.
It has been questioned as to whether the epidemic was already in decline when Snow took action. This has been perceived as a major event in the history of public health and can be regarded as the founding event of the science of epidemiology. Other pioneers include Danish physician P. Schleisner, who in related his work on the prevention of the epidemic of tetanus neonatorum on the Vestmanna Islands in Iceland.
Another important pioneer was Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweiswho in brought down infant mortality at a Vienna hospital by instituting a disinfection procedure. His findings were published inbut his work was ill received by his colleagues, who discontinued the procedure. Disinfection did not become widely practiced until British surgeon Joseph Lister 'discovered' antiseptics in in light of the work of Louis Pasteur. In the early 20th century, mathematical methods were introduced into epidemiology by Ronald RossAnderson Gray McKendrick and others.
Another breakthrough was the publication of the results of a British Doctors Studyled by Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hillwhich lent very strong statistical support to the suspicion that tobacco smoking was linked to lung cancer.
To date, few universities offer epidemiology as a course of study at the undergraduate level. Some epidemiologists work 'in the field'; i. Epidemiologists employ a range of study designs from the observational to experimental and generally categorized as descriptive, analytic aiming to further examine known associations or hypothesized relationshipsand experimental a term often equated with clinical or community trials of treatments and other interventions.
Epidemiological studies are aimed, where possible, at revealing unbiased relationships between exposures such as alcohol or smoking, biological agentsstressor chemicals to mortality or morbidity.Disney is taking advantage of the fill in the blanks strategy while capitalizing on animated nostalgia and utilizing a bright, colorful image.
Asking for users to provide a caption to an exciting or laugh-worthy photo is another smart strategy to drive interaction and engagement. Posts involving inspiring or life-affirming quotes often perform very well. People eat that stuff up. Jump on the meme wagon: Memes work on the same principle as quotes, but with auto meme generators they are easier to create.
We create our own PPC memes from time to time and they tend to do well. Sometimes they like it too much, but you might as well have those soapbox speakers benefit you. Let us know in the comments. Visit the AdWords Grader.
I really love the tips that you have shared Megan. It really refreshed me the basics of social media most especially Facebook where most marketing enthusiasts are finding the hard time for engagement.
Once you have put everything into consideration, you'll just be amazed on how your social media page will grow, thus making your business soar to its highest. I really look forward for more of your post. More power to you. Thanks David, I'm really glad you enjoyed the article.
It really is surprising sometimes to realize just how much you can do with Facebook - there are a TON of options that really allow you to experiment and work outside the box. I really appreciate your research about facebook. I am recently appraoch a company omlogic. Now, i will tell them more clearly what exactly i want for my website promotion. This is an awesome list.
It's kind of hard to find that full and generalized piece of information. Plus, everything's detailed and explained.
I liked the tip about participating in fun posts discussions. This is really interesting advice. Since it's important tointeract with audience and communicate using conversational language, discussing such posts can do a favor. I think participating in events like that also help foster a sense of community and belonging, which can always be powerful when building a brand identity. Hi MeganThanks so much for putting into clear and easy language what I should be doing on Facebook.
I appreciate the time and effort that has gone into researching and writing this article. I can't wait to put it into action. Jackie Wow, what a precious collection of valuable tips. Using hashtags has always been overlooked. Although the activity of using hashtags still not as high as in Twitter, it doesn't hurt and it can help, though. I've seen people do that but I've never thought about including the graphics like that. Thank you for sharing this huge valuable collection.
I hope some of these strategies can help you out. While hashatgs aren't so common on Facebook yet, there's nothing wrong with being a bit ahead of the curve. I really like the fill-in the blank and the picture caption ideas. You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find tuis matter to be reallly something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complpex and very broad for me. I'm looking forward for your next post, I wwill try to get the hang of it.The data you use for getting predictions is new data that takes the same form as the data you used for training.
Online and batch prediction both use the same data (the features of your model), but they require different formats depending on which type of prediction and which interface you use. These formats are summarized in the following table, and described in more detail in the sections below:The basic format for both online and batch prediction is a list of instance data tensors.
You cannot embed JSON objects. Lists must contain only items of the same type (including other lists). You may not mix string and numerical values.
If you have binary data in your inputs, you must use base64 encoding to represent it. The following special formatting is required:Your encoded string must be formatted as a JSON object with a single key named b64.
Epidemiology in Medicine
You pass input instances for online prediction as the message body for the predict request. For formatting of the request and response body, see the details of the prediction request. In brief: Make each instance an item in a list, and name the list member instances.
You provide input data for batch prediction in one or more text files containing rows of JSON instance data as described above. An input file contains no column headers or other formatting beyond the simple JSON syntax. This means that your data is distributed among an arbitrary cluster of virtual machines, and is processed in an unpredictable order. To be able to match the returned predictions with your input instances, you must have instance keys defined. An instance key is a value that every instance has that is unique among the instances in a set of data.
The simplest key is an index number. You should pass the keys through your graph unaltered in your training application. If your data doesn't already have instance keys, you can add them as part of your data preprocessing. As new versions of Cloud ML Engine are released, it is possible that models developed against older versions will become obsolete. This is particularly pertinent if you arrive at an effective model version that remains unchanged for a long period.
You should review the Cloud ML Engine versioning policy and make sure that you understand the Cloud ML Engine runtime version that you use to train your model versions. You can specify a supported Cloud ML Engine runtime version when you create a model version. Doing so establishes the model version's default setting. If you don't specify one explicitly, Cloud ML Engine creates your version using the current default runtime version (typically the most recent stable version).
You can specify a runtime version to use when you start a batch prediction job. This is to accommodate getting predictions using a model that is not deployed on Cloud ML Engine. You should never use a different runtime version than the default for a deployed model. Doing so is likely to cause unexpected errors. You cannot request online predictions from models outside of Cloud ML Engine, so there is no option to override the default runtime version in your request.
The default runtime version set for a model version cannot be changed. To specify a different runtime version for a model version, deploy a new version using the same training artifacts that you used initially. Google Cloud Platform uses zones and regions to define the geographic locations of physical computing resources. Cloud ML Engine uses regions to designate its processing.